History History of science by era

History of science by era

Contrary views--Historical revisionism
Not all historians of science are agreed that there was any revolution in the 16th or 17th century. The continuity thesis is the hypothesis that there was no radical discontinuity between the intellec ...
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Theoretical developments
In 1543 Copernicus' work on the heliocentric model of the solar system was published, in which he tried to demonstrate that the sun was the center of the universe. Few were bothered by this suggestion ...
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Scientific developments
Key ideas and people that emerged from the 16th and 17th centuries:First printed edition of Euclid's Elements in 1482.Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Sphe ...
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Significance of the revolution
Science in the Middle Ages was significant in establishing a base for modern science. The Marxist historian and scientist J. D. Bernal asserted that "the renaissance enabled a scientific revolution wh ...
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Mathematization
Scientific knowledge, according to the Aristotelians, was concerned with establishing true and necessary causes of things. To the extent that medieval natural philosophers used mathematical problems, ...
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Empiricism
The Aristotelian scientific tradition's primary mode of interacting with the world was through observation and searching for "natural" circumstances through reasoning. Coupled with this approach was t ...
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The chemical philosophy
Chemistry, and its antecedent alchemy, became an increasingly important aspect of scientific thought in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries. The importance of chemistry is indicated by the range ...
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The mechanical philosophy
Aristotle recognized four kinds of causes, and where applicable, the most important of them is the "final cause". The final cause was the aim, goal, or purpose of some natural process or man-made thin ...
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New approaches to nature
Historians of the scientific revolution traditionally maintain that its most important changes were in the way in which scientific investigation was conducted, as well as the philosophy underlying sci ...
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Ancient and medieval background
The scientific revolution was built upon the foundation of ancient Greek learning and science in the Middle Ages, as it had been elaborated and further developed by Roman/Byzantine science and medieva ...
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New ideas
The scientific revolution was not marked by any single change. The following new ideas contributed to what is called the scientific revolution, many of which were called revolutions in their own field ...
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Introduction
Advances in science have been termed "revolutions" since the 18th century. In 1747, Clairaut wrote that "Newton was said in his own lifetime to have created a revolution". The word was also used in th ...
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Scientific revolution
The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry tran ...
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Important developments
AlchemyAlchemy is the study of the transmutation of materials through obscure processes. It is sometimes described as an early form of chemistry. One of the main aims of alchemists was to find a metho ...
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The Renaissance
The 14th century saw the beginning of the cultural movement of the Renaissance. The rediscovery of ancient texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinople, in 1453, when many Byzantine scholars ...
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