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# Proofs

Theorems in logic
Logic, especially in the field of proof theory, considers theorems as statements (called formulas or well formed formulas) of a formal language. The statements of the language are strings of symbols a ...
2014-3-24 21:34
Lore
It has been estimated that over a quarter of a million theorems are proved every year.The well-known aphorism, "A mathematician is a device for turning coffee into theorems", is probably due to Alfré ...
2014-3-24 21:33
Layout
A theorem and its proof are typically laid out as follows:Theorem (name of person who proved it and year of discovery, proof or publication).Statement of theorem (sometimes called the proposition).Pro ...
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Terminology
A number of different terms for mathematical statements exist, these terms indicate the role statements play in a particular subject. The distinction between different terms is sometimes rather arbitr ...
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Relation with scientific theories
Theorems in mathematics and theories in science are fundamentally different in their epistemology. A scientific theory cannot be proven; its key attribute is that it is falsifiable, that is, it makes ...
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Provability and theoremhood
To establish a mathematical statement as a theorem, a proof is required, that is, a line of reasoning from axioms in the system (and other, already established theorems) to the given statement must be ...
2014-3-24 21:31
Informal account of theorems
Logically, many theorems are of the form of an indicative conditional: if A, then B. Such a theorem does not assert B, only that B is a necessary consequence of A. In this case A is called the hypothe ...
2014-3-24 21:31
Theorem
In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems—and generally accepted statements, such as axioms. The proof of ...
2014-3-24 21:30
Ending a proof
Main article: Q.E.D.Sometimes, the abbreviation "Q.E.D." is written to indicate the end of a proof. This abbreviation stands for "Quod Erat Demonstrandum", which is Latin for "that which was to be dem ...
2014-3-24 21:30
Related concepts
Visual proof Although not a formal proof, a visual demonstration of a mathematical theorem is sometimes called a "proof without words". The left-hand picture below is an example of a historic visual p ...
2014-3-24 21:29
Heuristic mathematics and experimental mathematics
Main article: Experimental mathematicsWhile early mathematicians such as Eudoxus of Cnidus did not use proofs, from Euclid to the foundational mathematics developments of the late 19th and 20th centur ...
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Undecidable statements
A statement that is neither provable nor disprovable from a set of axioms is called undecidable (from those axioms). One example is the parallel postulate, which is neither provable nor refutable from ...
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Methods of proof
Direct proof Main article: Direct proofIn direct proof, the conclusion is established by logically combining the axioms, definitions, and earlier theorems. For example, direct proof can be used to est ...
2014-3-24 21:28
Nature and purpose
As practised, a proof is expressed in natural language and is a rigorous argument intended to convince the audience of the truth of a statement. The standard of rigor is not absolute and has varied th ...
2014-3-24 21:28
History and etymology
The word "proof" comes from the Latin probare meaning "to test". Related modern words are the English "probe", "probation", and "probability", the Spanish probar (to smell or taste, or (lesser use) to ...
2014-3-24 21:27
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