Mathematics Formal sciences

Formal sciences

Differences from other forms of science
One reason why mathematics enjoys special esteem, above all other sciences, is that its laws are absolutely certain and indisputable, while those of other sciences are to some extent debatable and in ...
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History
Formal sciences began before the formulation of scientific method, with the most ancient mathematical texts dating back to 1800 BC (Babylonian mathematics), 1600 BC (Egyptian mathematics) and 1000 BC ...
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Formal science
Formal sciences are disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, a ...
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Conferences
Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC)Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS)ACM–SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA)Annual Symposium on Computational Geom ...
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Journals and newsletters
Information and ComputationTheory of Computing (open access journal)Formal Aspects of ComputingJournal of the ACMSIAM Journal on Computing (SICOMP)SIGACT NewsTheoretical Computer ScienceTheory of Comp ...
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History of computer science
While formal algorithms have existed for millennia (Euclid's algorithm for determining the greatest common divisor of two numbers is still used in computation), it was not until 1936 that Alan Turing, ...
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Scope
It is not easy to circumscribe the theory areas precisely and the ACM's Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computation Theory (SIGACT) describes its mission as the promotion of theoretical compu ...
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Theoretical computer science
This article is about the branch of computer science and mathematics. For the journal, see Theoretical Computer Science (journal).Theoretical computer science is a division or subset of general comput ...
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Statistics applied to mathematics or the arts
Traditionally, statistics was concerned with drawing inferences using a semi-standardized methodology that was "required learning" in most sciences. This has changed with use of statistics in non-infe ...
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Misuse of statistics
There is a general perception that statistical knowledge is all-too-frequently intentionally misused by finding ways to interpret only the data that are favorable to the presenter. A mistrust and misu ...
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Statistical computing
Main article: Computational statisticsThe rapid and sustained increases in computing power starting from the second half of the 20th century have had a substantial impact on the practice of statistica ...
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Specialized disciplines
Main article: List of fields of application of statisticsStatistical techniques are used in a wide range of types of scientific and social research, including: biostatistics, computational biology, co ...
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Statistical methods
Experimental and observational studiesA common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causality, and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of pre ...
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Overview
In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or societal problem, it is necessary to begin with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all persons liv ...
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History of statistics and Founders of statistics
Statistical methods date back at least to the 5th century BC.Some scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics to 1663, with the publication of Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Morta ...
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