Nature Physical sciences

Physical sciences

Developments
General systems research and systems inquiry Many early systems theorists aimed at finding a general systems theory that could explain all systems in all fields of science. The term goes back to Berta ...
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History
Whether considering the first systems of written communication with Sumerian cuneiform to Mayan numerals, or the feats of engineering with the Egyptian pyramids, systems thinking can date back to anti ...
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Examples of applications
Systems biology Main article: Systems biologySystems biology is a movement that draws on several trends in bioscience research. Proponents describe systems biology as a biology-based inter-disciplinar ...
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Overview
Contemporary ideas from systems theory have grown with diverse areas, exemplified by the work of biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy, linguist Béla H. Bánáthy, ecological systems with Howard T. Odum, ...
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Systems theory
Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research ...
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Problems solved in recent decades
Gravitational wave (2014)There was considerable scepticism whether gravitational waves can be detected experimentally? In March 2014, The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announced that it ...
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List of unsolved problems in physics
Unsolved problems by subfield The following is a list of unsolved problems grouped into broad area of physics.Cosmology, and general relativity Cosmic inflationIs the theory of cosmic inflation correc ...
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List of unsolved problems in physics
Research in physics is continually progressing on a large number of fronts.In condensed matter physics, an important unsolved theoretical problem is that of high-temperature superconductivity. Many co ...
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Astrophysics and Physical cosmology
Astrophysics and astronomy are the application of the theories and methods of physics to the study of stellar structure, stellar evolution, the origin of the solar system, and related problems of cosm ...
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High-energy physics (particle physics) and nuclear physics
Particle physics is the study of the elementary constituents of matter and energy, and the interactions between them. In addition, particle physicists design and develop the high energy accelerators, ...
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Atomic, molecular, and optical physics
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter–matter and light–matter interactions on the scale of single atoms and molecules. The three areas are grouped together because of t ...
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Condensed matter physics
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. In particular, it is concerned with the "condensed" phases that appear whenever the numb ...
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Scope and aims
Physics covers a wide range of phenomena, from elementary particles (such as quarks, neutrinos, and electrons) to the largest superclusters of galaxies. Included in these phenomena are the most basic ...
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Theoretical physics and Experimental physics
Theorists seek to develop mathematical models that both agree with existing experiments and successfully predict future experimental results, while experimentalists devise and perform experiments to t ...
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Scientific method
Physicists use the scientific method to test the validity of a physical theory, using a methodical approach to compare the implications of the theory in question with the associated conclusions drawn ...
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