Main article: Number theory The term arithmetic also refers to number theory. This includes the properties of integers related to primality, divisibility, and the solution of equations in integers, as well as modern research that is an outgrowth of this study. It is in this context that one runs across the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and arithmetic functions. A Course in Arithmetic by Jean-Pierre Serre reflects this usage, as do such phrases such as first-order arithmetic or arithmetical algebraic geometry. Number theory is also referred to as the higher arithmetic, as in the title of Harold Davenport's book on the subject. |

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